Associate Professor, Aalborg University

100% Renewable Energy Systems

Here you will find a list of studies that outline the potential for a 100% renewable energy system in different parts of the world, which I have gathered during my research within this field.




China, Korea, and Japan:






Beyond zero emissions has initiated a project call “Zero Carbon Australia” where they aim to develop a blueprint for the transition to a decarbonised Australian economy by 2020.



Five different scenarios outline how Belgium can become 100% renewable, which will cost approximately €360 billion between 2012 and 2050 while creating 20,000 to 60,000 jobs.



zerocarbonbritain2030 is a fully integrated solution to climate change. It examines how Britain can meet its electricity, heating, and transport requirements through efficient service provision, while decarbonising by 2030.



The first report completed for a 100% renewable energy system in Denmark was carried out by the IDA (Danish Society of Engineers) in 2006, which was declared an energy year by the association. In this first analysis of the IDA Energy Plan, two plans were created using the EnergyPLAN model, one for the year 2030 outlining the first steps required and secondly, a plan for the year 2050, where Denmark is a 100% renewable energy system.

In 2009, an update of the IDA Energy Plan was completed called the IDA Climate Plan, once again using the EnergyPLAN model. This study included three scenarios: one for the year 2015, 2030, and 2050. Once again, various steps were outlined for each of these years in order to achieve a 100% renewable energy system by 2050. In addition to the technical advancements required, the siocio economic benefits of a 100% renewable energy system are also outlined. The results have also been published in the journal of Applied Energy.



Energy Plan


Future Climate


Climate Plan


Applied Energy




The first draft of a 100% renewble energy system for Ireland was created in 2010 using the EnergyPLAN model. The primary objective of this first attempt was to analyse potential technical solutions for a 100% renewable energy system for Ireland.

ICON_EnergyRichJapan Japan:The “Energy Rich Japan” (ERJ) report examines how Japan’s energy need can be reduced and ultimately be covered by a sustainable energy system using exclusively local, renewable energies, using the SimREN energy tool.
ICON_ElecJournalICON_EnergyPolicy New Zealand:Two studies have analysed the potential for a 100% renewable electricity sector in New Zealand. The first concludes that it is feasible, acheivable, and desirable for New Zealand to convert to 100% RE.The second study develops a plant mix which would creaete this 100% scenario for New Zealand, comprising of 53–60% hydro, 22–25% wind, 12–14% geothermal, 1% biomass and 0–12% additional peaking generation. ICON_ScienceDirectICON_ScienceDirect
ICON_AppliedEnergy Portugal:A 100% electricity supply has been designed for Portugal using the H2RES energy tool, where specific attention was given to the benefits of large-scale energy storage. ICON_ScienceDirect
ICON_EREC Europe:RE-thinking 2050 presents a pathway towards a 100% renewable energy system for the EU, examining the effects on Europe’s energy supply system and on CO2 emissions, while also portraying the economic, environmental and social benefits of such a system.


INFORSE have developed a number of studies outlining how various different countries countries can achieve a 100% renewable energy system by 2050 including Belarus, Britain, Bulgaria, Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, and the Ukraine., as well as the EU27.


Europe and North Africa:

A report commissioned by PricewaterhouseCoopers was recently completed to inverstigate the potential for a 100% electricity generation in Europe and North Africa. The report created a timeline for the changes required in policies, markets, investments, and infrastructure to achieve this taret by 2050.




Malmö, Sweden:

In conjunction with the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), ICLEI World Secretariat is compiling case studies on topics related to renewable energy in cities. One of the themes is ambitious target settings by municipalities, with goals for 100% renewables, and particularly how the municipality is going about this in its master plan or other policies.


United States of America:

Repower America is an innitiative in the United States of America which began based on the work carried out by Al Gore. The objective is to identify how the Univted States can supply 100% of its electricity with renewable energy and revitalize its national energy infrastructure.

One study also analysed the potential for the United States to convert to a 100% renewable electricity supply, concluding that concludes that it is feasible, acheivable, and desirable for the USA to convert to 100% RE.

In 2014, a new study from produced by both Greenpeace and the Global Wind Energy Council (Energy [R]evolution), details how by 2050, renewable energy sources could be producing close to 97% of electricity in the U.S. and approximately 94% of the country’s needs for heating and cooling homes and businesses.








Energy [R]evolution